Organic Chemistry


Photosynthesis is a chemical process that plants use to change sunlight into sugar, providing energy for the plant.  Plants use 

sunlight to combine carbon dioxide with water to produce glucose and oxygen.  The chemical formula for this is:

6CO­2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + O2

This means that the plant uses 6 molecules of carbon dioxide combined with 6 molecules of water to create 1 molecule of 

glucose and 6 molecules of oxygen.

            Both the top and bottom of the leaf have cuticles there is 

an upper and a lower epidermis. The only difference between 

them is that the lower epidermis has stoma.  This is a place for 

oxygen to leave and carbon dioxide to enter the plant.  If the 

stoma were on the top, the sun would evaporate all of the water 

in the plant. The palisade mesophyll cells and the spongy 

mesophyll cells contain chloroplasts to make photosynthesis 

possible. The difference between the two is that the spongy mesophyll cells carry more water. Inside the vein of the plant are 

the xylem and the phloem.  The xylem carries water, while the phloem carries sugar soln.